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Emergency Management

Question 1

Elsner et al. (2008) indicate that there are significant variables to consider when determining the relationship between hurricane intensity and climate change. These variables include temperature over the seas, time and wind speed. The temperatures warm the seas. The rate at which the sea warms is determined by the temperature levels. The higher the sea’s warmth, the more energy is present to be concentrated into tropical cyclone wind. The time variable allows the reader to understand whether the cyclones are getting stronger or weaker as the years progress.

In their conclusion, the authors identify that if the wind speed quantiles are over 0.7, there are notable upward trends. The strongest cyclones are found to have drifts as elevated as 0.3 ±0.09ms-1yr-1. Additionally, they note that the strongest cyclones relating to individual basins had separate upward trends. It was estimated in relation to their approximated life-time speeds of wind. The winds in this category were in the 99th percentile. Although all basins did not indicate significant increases statistically, the North Atlantic indicated the largest increase in the specified quantile. The hypothesis linking the seas temperatures with the hurricane’s intensity was verified. As the seas increases in warmth, more energy is formed, hence converting into tropical cyclone wind. 

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Question 2

Atmospheric hazards in the macro category occurring on both land and sea form through various processes. Some macro atmospheric hazards such as tornados have rapid development processes to the extent that it becomes hard to identify their approaching before they occur. Furthermore, there is no defined information of how they occur. Other macro hazards such as tropical cyclones are quite defined. Meteorologists can identify them at an early stage, hence warning citizens before the disaster.

One of the evident differences between tropical cyclones and winter and summer storms is their occurrence. Tropical cyclones happen over water basins, mainly seas and oceans. On the other hand, the storms occur over land. However, the impact of both storms and tropical cyclones can be felt on land due to rains and floods caused by the latter hazard.  While cyclones and tornados are influenced by wind, hail and snow storms have precipitation influence. Although they are dangerous, tornadoes take the shortest time to occur, both in the formation and the time taken before they dissipate. However, they can take up to two hours.   

Question 3

There are numerous activities that can serve the climate mitigation and adaptation purposes. For example, engaging in more tree planting activities in as far as the urban areas are concerned facilitates the two activities trapping the carbon being released. Simultaneously, they will cool the surrounding when the heat waves hit. This endeavour will include the involvement of the government, which will engage in formulating policies that support such strategies. For example, the government should encourage the formation of outdoor parks as opposed to indoor ones. It will also include upholding the natural even if it is at the expense of destroying or displacing some artificial structures.

One of the advantages is that the natural environment plays a significant role in stabilising the climate. It is also advantageous to the physical well-being of the people. For example, trees release oxygen and aid in freshening the air. They also attract rain in dry areas. One disadvantage is that it costs more in the short run. Some people or resources may also be replaced.

Question 4

There are factors aggravate disease epidemics. Some of them include migratory activities by refugees and evolving world crises, which underwrite transient global population. The level of illegal migratory activities across borders has significantly inhibited attempts to curb the spread of diseases. It is caused by the fact that such migrants fail to go through the test and prevention measures enacted by governments to reduce disease spread.

The population issue has also played a significant role in hindering disease spread prevention strategies. It is easier to spread diseases in densely populated areas as compared to the scarcely populated ones. Urban areas are, therefore, at higher risks of being heat by epidemics as opposed to the scarcely populated rural areas. When a disease that is spread by air and contact strikes as in the current case of Ebola, dense areas as opposed to scarce regions are hit the most.

Question 5

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Various agencies and authorities have put in place plans that include strategies that are meant to reduce wildfires hazards and their impacts. Although these policies play their specific roles towards controlling such incidences and their outcomes, some strategies are more practical than the others. One of the evident strategies is the treatment of areas that are prone to wildfires (California EMA, 2010; East Bay, n.d.). It is one of the most efficient strategies. These areas should be examined by the authorized bodies before the treatment process. In addition, majority of the plans are available in government websites.

Unfortunately, this strategy is affected by the lack of updated plans in the resources. It is relevant to identify that some regions may have increased their risk of wildfire occurrence due to changes in weather patterns and other factors leading to such outcomes (California EMA, 2010). A resident should know this to ask for treatment if necessary. The other strategy includes environment management in as far as waste management is concerned. Some wastes act as fuels due to their chemical components and other factors surrounding them. Mismanaging such wastes can easily cause such fires.

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