1. The five steps in the training process are Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluation. The first stage is to analyze the training needs, during which the goals and objectives that an employee has to fulfill to demonstrate and apply obtained knowledge and skills, are defined. The next step is designing the training program. This stage specifies goals and objectives, plans learning activities, creates a plan of educational materials, and defines tools that will be used during training. The following phase is development, which means creation of the training content, elaboration of all needed training materials. After all the material is ready, the implementation of developed training, which directly provides the educational process with the use of created materials, starts. The last step is evaluation. It analyzes the results of the study. The analysis defines the relevant to the training materials and plans.
2. There are many kinds of training programs:
a.On-the-Job training. It means training in the course of the actual performance of a specific work.
b.Lecturing. This program has several advantages. It is a quick and easy way to transfer knowledge to large groups of students. Lectures, in contrast to the use of printed materials such as books and manuals, are not expensive and allow the audience to ask questions.
c.Audiovisual-Based Training. It uses the DVDs, movies, audiotapes or PowerPoint presentations. It can be very useful if there is no possibility to show some processes during lecture.
d.Videoconferencing. This training is helpful as the trainer from the central office has the possibility to teach a group of employees who are at a great distance from him/her.
e.Computer-Based Training. Employees learn by executing special training programs on a computer.
f.Interactive trainings. They include different simulations or games and help the participants get involved in the educational process.
g.Internet-Based Training. Employees can take different online courses and can choose the time when they are able to take the course.
h. Job Instruction Training. It is a systematic instruction for employees about the facilities where they can get the information about what to do, how to it and why.
3. The first step for leading organizational change is to create a sense of urgency. Then, it is necessary to create task forces to diagnose the problems of the company and assemble a powerful and energetic group to lead and support a collaborative change effort. The next step is to form a strategic vision and initiatives and raise a large number of people who are willing and ready to drive change. After that, the obstacles to change should be removed, systems or structures that pose threats to the achievement of the vision need to be changed, short-term wins generated, and the progress monitored and assessed.
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4. Firstly, it is necessary to select the right worker as well as supervisors and to provide the professional growth for the employees. The managers of the organization need to show the career direction and promotion opportunities for employees and make them feel valuable for the company, set goals and expectation to the employee performance and clarify their responsibilities. Rewards and the recognition of good work is a big plus for the company benefits. Developed corporate culture in companies, where employees feel themselves comfortable, and a flexible schedule are the things that can motivate them to work in such company.
5. Coaching is a process where the beginning and the end are defined by a coach and an employee, according to the goal set by the employee. The coach is responsible for conducting thoughts, finding solutions and developing skills. The employee receives the instruction aimed at improving performance by the development of skills supported by the coach. The latter helps to identify competences and helps the recognition and overcoming of fragilities/challenges through giving the necessary inputs, the chance to experience and the feedbacks. An efficient coaching is the best way to motivate people, set goals, create plans and develop competences and a proactive behavior.
Mentoring is a process the purpose of which is to provide support to the workers in their professional development and growth from more experienced instructors. Its goal is the implementation of the employee’s potential by investigating alternatives and stimulating others to act.
6. There are some career-related decisions, taken by employers. The quality of these decisions will affect motivation, performance and dedication of the employees. The primary issue to consider when making promotion decision concerns selecting criteria for seniority or competence, or some combination of them. If the promotion is based on competence, it is necessary to decide how to define and measure competencies. Next (especially if there is a decision to increase the number of employees regarding their competences), the process form should be outlined. Later, the type of promotion is to be chosen. It can be vertical, horizontal, or other.
7. Exempt jobs are specific categories of jobs where employees are exempt from the FLSA, and they are not required to receive extra money for working overtime. When workers are nonexempt, they should be paid for overtime for each hour.
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8. The first step is to survey what competitors are paying for similar jobs. The second is to select the firms’ competitive advantages. After that, the relative weighting of each factor should be determined as for each job there are more and less important factors. Then, the points to each factor are to be assigned, and the degrees defined. Thus, the total point value for each job will be received. Consequently, jobs with more points should have higher pay. At last, job descriptions and job specifications must be reviewed.
9. Broadbanding is a method for evaluation of job grading structure or typical salary. Its aim is to establish what is required to pay for incumbents of certain positions. Broadbanding allows to move employees slightly up or down along the pay scale, without pushing a person into a new salary range.
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