In this paper, one of the most serious diseases was taken into account. It is of common knowledge that syphilis is a wide-spread illness all over the world, and the lack of precise data in this branch can lead to various negative consequences. The purpose of this paper was to investigate such significant issues as the general data about the diagnosis of syphilis, its symptoms, bacteria information, and pathophisiology of this illness as the topicality of this research is evident. If a larger amount of conducted studies is conducted in this area, it will be much easier to provide an effective treatment and to prevent this disease. In order to achieve the purpose of the paper unbiased, up-to-date, and reliable sources were used.  

Keywords: syphilis, bacteria, pathophisiology.

Nowadays, syphilis has already become one of the most serious health problems an abundance of people have to face with. Contemporary medicine has already stated that the cause of syphilis, which is a sexually transmitted disease, is a bacterium Treponema pallidum. The cell is divided into the outer membrane sheath, protoplasmic cell cylinder, and periplasmic flagelium. The peculiarity of this bacterium is the fact that it can live in human body even during decades, but it cannot survive outside it for a considerable period of time. This is the reason why it is impossible for a patient can be infected if he had contact with blood or body fluid of a syphilis-ill person.    

Another peculiarity of the bacterium is the notion that if trimers and dimers are needed to be observed, its denatured protein is considered to be 30 kDa whereas “native protein of each cell exhibits single channel conductance value of 0.15 and 0.7 nS” The conductance value of recombinant protein is stated to be 0.4 as well as 0.8 nS.

The evidence of syphilis is of paramount importance for doctors all over the world. It originated from India and Indonesia, and then it spread all over the world whereas the patients were often accused of immoral behavior. At first, the evidence of syphilis appears on the patient’s sexual organs, and then the lymphatic system carries the bacterium through the whole human organism. There are three stages of syphilis: primary, secondary, and tertiary. As a rule, the pathological evidence of syphilis depends on the stage.

Primary syphilis is pecilar for the appearance of chancres.  It is of common knowledge that this chancre is either a sore or an ulcer which is always painless. In spite of the fact that, in most cases, chancre heralds appear on the patient’s genitals, it can also be observed on other parts of human body, for example, anus, nipples, scrotum, rectum, labia, mouth, fingers, or lips. A sore or a chancre appears from ten to ninety days after the infection appearance in the body.

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Secondary syphilis can be characterized by the rashes of the skin. It is brown or red spots which can appear on any part of the human body. Itching cannot be caused by these rashes, and it can be one more problem for the doctors to indicate them but they are very often considered to be symptoms of fever and associated with fatigue, sore throat, muscle aches, or headache.

Tertiary or last-stage syphilis can cause some abnormalities of both brain and heart. In numerous cases, it can lead to a loss of hearing and vision, dementia, strokes, and even death if the disease is not cured. In various organs and tissues, which are affected by the bacterium, tertiary syphilis can become a cause of the destruction of tissue which, in medical terminology, is also called gummas.

For the purpose of identification of the presence of the Treponema pallidum bacterium in the organism, special equipment is necessary. First of all, it is a microscope which is known to be dark-field which provides an opportunity to perform an examination of a sample of a tissue which is taken from the patient’s chancre.

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Another item which is inevitable for the examination of the disease under consideration is the test of the patient’s blood which helps to identify if any antibodies to the Treponema pallidum bacterium are present in the blood (antibodies are specific proteins which are produced by the body in order to protect against invasion by any possible foreign organisms or substances. If these substances are absent, it means that the patient is not affected by the bacterium which causes syphilis.

Treatment of syphilis always includes penicillin as well as other antibiotics such as tetracycline and azithromycin. In spite of the fact that men are more vulnerable to the bacterium, all sexual partners of the patient must be examined.

In conclusion, it is noteworthy to state that the public awareness of the ways to prevent syphilis and the necessity to take urgent measures if any symptoms of it are present can reduce the amount of cases when a person is affected by the Treponema pallidum bacterium. Moreover, more studies should be conducted for the purpose of making the treatment of this disease more effective.

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