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From the genetical point of view, twins are regarded as the same. Their DNA composition is an exact replica of each other. However, the major questions that arise amidst all these similarities is why such twins exhibit some differences and how one of the twins is affected by autism while the other remains normal. How can one of them become be diagnosed with such conditions as leukemia and cancer while the other leads a perfect life? The answer to such questions lies in the concept of genome. Thus, epigenetics can be described as the phenomenon that explains why and how gene expressions can be passed over from one individual to other generations in the life cycle. This field of science has shed light on the circumstances that could lead to acquiring some diseases such as cancer, leukemia, and diabetes. The discovery epitomized by epigenetics has enhanced the revolutionizing of the medicinal aspects in the world (Carey, 2012).
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Epigenetics can be illustrated as the study of the expression of the genes without any alterations of the DNA. It encompasses all the aspects that affect the environment and the lifestyles which have a direct impact on the genes expression. According to some doctors, epigenetics is described as a soft form of inheritance in the human race (Carey, 2012). The word epigenetic comes from Greek and means lies above the genome. As much as the field can be termed as a new emblem, it construes a number of century old aspects within itself; this encompasses the theories founded within the conditions exemplified by the field. The logic of epigenetics is encrypted in the transition from a form to another shape with no form; hence it is termed as a situation where no gene is expressed (Carey, 2012). In the 18th century, just before the period hailed by Darwin, Jean Baptiste Lamarck explained how evolution occurred in few generations in the environment.
Genetic inheritance for a long time has been associated with the transmissions of the DNA across the generations, which is occasionally affected by the mutations in the DNA. However, Professor Pembrey, who works at the Institute of Child Health (UCL), claims that inheritance is essentially more than DNA transmissions. In the video, it is apparent that from the early stages of their lives, people exhibit more profound similarities than at the further stages. The similarities btween the twins are broken because of a number of environmental issues that alter the growth structure of the individuals. For instance, one of the twins can be diagnosed with cancer, while the other twin may be perfectly healthy. Such differences are clearly explained by scientific aspects which have been termed as epigenetics.
A number of factors explain the differences that may arise between the two twins. One twin may have stronger abilities than the other although they possess the same DNA. This may be triggered by such factors as the kind of foods (diet), lifestyle, and the surrounding environment which build up the twins. In case when one of the twins is taken to Asia and the other remains in Europe, these two individuals will grow up depicting totally different traits despite being twins. This is explained by the genome aspect. The DNA transmission in each of such individuals is altered by the factors that make up an individual. Few scientists have hypothesized the fact that the conventional inheritance model galvanized by DNA transmission was too simple explaining the complexity that underlies the human generation (Carey, 2012). The video is trying to depict this on the grounds of the differences that accrue in twins.
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My Dad is a diabetic, and the effects of his sickness have been transferred to our youngest sibling in the family who is also diabetic despite her young age. This sickness has been profound in the family lineage; according to our parents, our grandmother suffered from the same sickness before she died ten years ago. It is a kind of hereditary disease from our great grandparents. Just before I understood the concept of epigenetics, I could not fathom the cause of the illness in my sister despite her twin’s perfect health condition. DNA transmission offers the basis for the effects that transform in such scenario; this is because the father’s illness and condition is likely to be passed on to the siblings as much as does the mother’s.
Chromatin Regulation by Brg1
A research conducted by Professor Marcus while analyzing two instances of syndromes (Angelman and Prader-Willi) depicts that these sets of conditions are transmitted to the offsprings by their parents. Marcus works out to depict that the two syndromes lead to different diseases caused by the same genetic alteration structure which is a deletion of chromosome 15. The most remarkable thing in the study is that the parent from whom the mutation was inherited could determine which disease was portrayed by the patients. This is exactly what the Brg1 research tries to portray with the changes in the Myosin molecular chain (Hang et al, 2010). These findings portray a clear picture of my family history which is galvanized by a number of such changes. Throughout the lineage of my grandparents, my family has been struggling with diabetes. At least one individual in the family has to be struck with the disease, and I think the best explanation to bring forth is the DNA transmission that takes place in the family lineage.
Professor Wolf Reik, who is a developmental geneticist at Babraham Institute, Cambridge, conducted a mouse experiment where he determined an embryo change of a mouse when placed on a culture dish. In his experiment, the genes are switched off. It leaves a question whether the same would happen if a human embryo is placed in the same condition during Vitro fertilization. A Beckwith-Wiedeman syndrome (BWS) is epitomized by excessive growth which is catalyzed by the reduced expression of a growth suppression kind of gene while promoting the growth enhancing genes. This is a kind of epigenetic illness. The genes that cause the illness are found on the chromosomes 11, which normally work in tandem to ensure growth proportionality (Hang et al, 2010). However, in case of a disease, the epigenetic aspects cause imbalance which leads to an excessive growth in the patients.
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The best way to protect ourselves from environmental issues that affect our DNA, make up, and increase the longevity is ensuring that we stick to healthy way of life. Pollution is a big problem that is affecting the society, and if we avoid the effects of contamination, twins will always remain twins, and the huge changes that happen among them will no longer happen. Epigenetics offers a clear explanation to a number of unexplained aspects in the present world which is coupled up with numerous environmental transformations, for instance, during the twin towers bombing in the US, a pregnant woman gave birth to a child who was not able to cope up with stress; this is because the child was born with extremely low level of cortisol. Thus, epigenetics is an important field which gives a further analysis of the changes experienced in human beings.
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