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1. Human beings have ethical obligation to others in the society. Human beings have to live a moral life to have good relationship with others. There is freedom of choice of what is right and wrong, and that freedom is limited when it does not interfere with other people’s freedom. The freedom that we have is the main source of moral obligation which we must honor by accepting its burden. The freedom that other people have is very important in the sustainability of our freedom, since our freedom affects other people’s freedom. For us to be free, we must exercise freedom to others. The freedom that we owe others gives us the opportunity to develop moral standards which allow us to receive the freedom that we are obligated to give others. This freedom which we owe other helps us to choose the right thing to do in the society which cannot affect others. It is also important in keeping the relationship which we have with other people in the society. The moral standard will therefore be strengthened, since other people perceived that they have a right to be treated with due diligence in the society.
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The disclosure of being occurs when we offer our moral services to others. The moral being is disclosed when one takes part in some projects which are aimed to support others. The obligation which we owe the society is the observation of some moral standards that make us liable to any deed that we commit in the society. We therefore have the liability to do things which affect the interests of others. The disclosure of being is shown when we have respect, love, and sympathy for oneself and the commitment towards the support of others in the society. The disclosure of being is very important for freedom, because it gives human beings an opportunity to do what is right in the society by considering that we owe others moral obligation. The composite of being and nothingness means that human beings are made up of two components that are body and consciousness. This makes human beings different from other objects, which lack consciousness but have only the body. The secrete conclusion of Beauvoir is that humanity is very important in the creation of freedom which allows everybody to be accountable for the freedom of the other. We also need to develop morals which make us stay freely with the members of the community when we treat these values as virtues hat must be withheld in the society.
2. The meaning of the phrase ‘the murder of God’ means that it is a strong belief on the moral values of religion to guide moral conduct of human beings in the society. The fall of religion can lead to nihilism when people convert their religious way of life by ignoring their moral authority, which was responsible for authorizing the way people were to live in the society. The origination of atheism kills the moral authority in the western world where moral values of religion could not now be applicable in the society, and this led to the coming of nihilism which has very many negative effects in the society. Nihilism is therefore a belief that God does not exist, and there are no moral values which are to control the moral behaviors of human beings in the society. People therefore believe that there is no higher authority to intervene in the moral conduct of people. The birth of nihilism created an idea that it is needless to have higher moral authority to award divine wrath for the purpose of controlling the immoral behaviors, but people should depend on their own way of life without having a supernatural being to control them.
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In nihilism, morality can be there without the existence of supernatural being, but it can be based on whom it is supposed to serve in the community. There should be independence of the way we handle ourselves, since humanity has become of age that it can regulate its own moral conducts. It is believed that nihilism can be overcome when Christian faith is strengthened by spreading the word of God that there is a supernatural being that lives in Heaven to control the immoral conduct of people in the world. The belief must be increased by spreading the Word of God and convincing people that there is a moral authority to punish those who do immoral acts. The people are to practice the Christian tradition so that they can restore their faith in the living God who is the provider of all things.
The age of a strong belief in the tradition of Christianity has expired, and we should believe in God who lives like us. We should not believe that there is God who is transcendent, but we should be gods ourselves by behaving in a godly manner. This makes us very loving, kind, and ready to help others when they have problems. The belief in the tradition of Christianity makes people believe in life after death, which can only be achieved when a person believes in Christian values and norms. This challenges the murder of God and nihilism, which does not believe in life after death but relents on their belief that human beings have grown to the age to maintain their own values.
3. The beliefs and values that have changed because of the readings, lectures, and discussions of this course is that Christian traditions cannot perfect the moral values of human beings, but somebody can shape their life without following religious norms and culture. The belief that there must be a supernatural God to control the moral conduct of human beings on earth is also changed, because human conduct depends on the values, which are part of them. Human beings can treat fellow human beings like God by adopting the Godly behaviors. This enhances the moral values in the society, which could have not been there when that belief is absent. The belief that there is life after death has also changed, since there is no life after death, and therefore moral behavior depends on the individual character. There is also a change in the attitude towards nihilism, which states that there is no God to rely on, but one can only depend on a fellow man that has human weaknesses. Still, there must be moral authority to control the moral behavior.
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The philosophical consideration which made me change my attitude towards nihilism is the fact that God does not exist, but human beings exist and live. This cannot be true, because there must be a creator who formed the universe and all the features on it. There is also a change that altered my feelings toward nihilism, which is the belief that God is there to control the conduct of people in the universe. That philosophical consideration that God is the moral authority according to nihilism also affected my belief in God, since Christians believe that there are spiritual values which are being observed by God to ensure that human beings behave morally amongst themselves. The reasoning is very circular, since all of the theories try to support moral behavior, but the distinction is the existence of God. The other takes God as a supernatural being who is the moral authority. In this reasoning, it is very hard to know the truth about God, and therefore the kind of reasoning becomes circular.
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